It was just last week that had cause to comment on my own weakness for movies based on comic
books. I suppose it's good to know that I'm not a total sucker, and that some such films still fail to meet my loose
standards. This helpful reminder comes by way of Marvel's latest big-screen adaptation, "The Punisher."
If you've seen the trailers for "Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind," the ones that
start out like another pre-movie commercial, you'll already have an idea that it must be a pretty weird film. For
me, that was reason enough to give it a look. As it turned out, that made for a very good choice on my part.
So we've established that I'm pretty forgiving of superhero movies - I even had some
positive things to say about "Daredevil." I can only hope you won't hold
this against me when I say that "Hellboy" was a very cool movie. But if you like comic books, sci-fi, or
unnameable horrors (and who doesn't?), then you'll probably agree with me.
I think it's only appropriate that I bring my movie reviews back from the dead with
a good old-fashioned zombie flick. "Dawn of the Dead" may not be an Academy Award contender, but it is a
thoroughly satisfying undead romp. You should be able to pretty easily judge how you'll like it based on your
opinion of "28 Days Later," since the two movies have a great deal in
Have I ever mentioned my weakness for historical epics? It's kind of weird, since
I'm certainly no history buff, but I just like these movies. So once everyone started telling me how great
"The Last Samurai" was, I really had no choice but to see it. And unsurprisingly, I loved it.
What do you do when your studio has ten or so love story concepts floating around,
but none of them are strong enough to make a movie? You combine them all together into one big movie, of
course! And while I have no idea if this is the true story behind the creation of "Love Actually," I challenge
anyone to reveal a better reason for the production of such a narrative nightmare.
Do you like detailed period pieces? Do you like swashbuckling manly men? Do you like
plot-driven movies? If your answer to these quesions is "yes," then I can safely tell you the following about
"Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World" - two out of three ain't bad.
"All things that have a beginning must have an end." And it's more or less with
that tidbit of philosophy that the "Matrix" trilogy draws to a close. Not, of course, without a bevy of
explosions, epic battles, effects shots, and vinyl pants. And a little more dime-store philosophy. And even
if it couldn't possibly have had the same impact as the original, "The Matrix: Revolutions" was a step up
There was exactly one thing I didn't like about the first volume of "Kill Bill."
If we can get that out of the way right off the top, I can spend the rest of my time here showering praise
on the movie.
I wasn't even sure if I should write a review of the theatrical release of the
director's cut of "Alien." After all, this is not really a new movie we're talking about, and anyone who
might be reading this has had nearly fifteen years to form their own opinion. But writing reviews of movies I see is
what I do, so it seems only appropriate that I spare a few words for my latest cinematic experience.
I really wanted to like "Bubba Ho-Tep." The concept had so much potential: You
start with Elvis Presley and John F. Kennedy, or at least a pair of geriatrics who think that's
who they are. You place them in a convalescent home in a backwater town in Texas, and you pit them
against a mummy. And you let Bruce Campbell, an actor who's career was born fighting the campy undead,
play Elvis. Comedy gold, right?
I'm hesitant to give "Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines" a good review. Not
because it doesn't deserve it, but because this is a movie best enjoyed if you come in expecting it
to be awful. That was certainly the attitude I held on arriving at the theatre, and I was most pleasantly
surprised. It turns out that "T3" is a reasonably good action film, and a worthy successor to the
With the recent spate of comic book-inspired movies, I suppose it's no surprise that
even some of the more obscure titles are making their way to the big screen. And "The League of Extraordinary
Gentlemen" - a graphic novel about a super-group composed of heroes from 19th century pulp fiction - certainly
qualifies as obscure. Existing fans of the comic will probably form the core audience for this movie, but this
is one case where I don't know enough about the source material to tell whether these fans will enjoy the
results or not. Non-fans, pleasantly bereft of expectations, should be prepared for a fairly average, popcorn-
munching summer action flick.
Ah, zombies. Those shambling, rotting, brain-hungry hordes of the undead. There's
just nothing like a good old fashioned zombie movie. And though "28 Days Later" contains no actual references
to zombies, the undead, or "BRAAAAAINS," there's still no mistaking it for anything but a zombie flick -
survival horror in the vein of the original "Night of the Living Dead."
I've been hearing a lot of conflicting reviews out there, so let me get right to the
point: I liked "The Matrix: Reloaded." I was not, however, blown away - as I should have been by a worthy
successor to "The Matrix." Where the first one gave us effects and action like we'd never seen before, this
one just provided more of the same, and seemed to try to make up for its lack of improvement in quality by
a large increase in quantity. The result is a fun movie, but by no means a great one.
By the time I finish writing this review, I imagine that most of my readers will already
have seen "X2: X-Men United." And those who haven't are likely those who won't know matter how highly I speak
of it. But the short version is this: if you liked "X-Men" then you'll
like the sequel.
Well I wish that I could start this review in the same way that I
started this one. But I did not leave "The
Two Towers" with quite the same feeling of jaw-dropping awe. This is probably because the last
movie so greatly surpassed my expectations, and set such a high bar for the sequel, that I
came out feeling a bit let down when this year's film merely met, rather than exceeding, my
expectations. Having said that, I should also say this feeling is something I encourage you
to ignore, because the latest installment of the trilogy is every bit as good as the last.
I'm glad I made it out to see "Better Luck Tomorrow" while it was actually in theatres.
With the impending arrival of a slew of summer blockbusters, I thought I might let this one get away until it showed
up on the "Sundance Channel" a year or so from now. But I saw it, and I liked it, and I recommend it.
I hate reviewing a movie that I really liked, but don't think anyone else will want
to see. "Cowboy Bebop: The Movie" was a good movie, but it was definitely made for the fans of the "Cowboy
Bebop" television series. And since I'm pretty sure most of my regular readers don't stay up light to watch
Cartoon Network, there probably aren't too many existing "Bebop" fans amongst you. But hey, the
last anime I reviewed just won an Academy Award, and has returned to theatres with lucrative results. So
you never know what might catch someone's fancy.
This one will be short and sweet. From the commercials for "Bringing Down the House,"
I was expecting two hours of bad jokes revolving around conservative-looking white folks trying to employ
African-American "urban" slang and mannerisms. I was pleasantly surprised to find that this was just a small
portion of the movie, and that on the whole it was a fun little flick.
Most of the time, I rely on you, the reader, to decide whether you'll
like a movie I review, based on the content of that review and your past history of agreement
with my tastes. But every once in a while, I fell the need to go the extra mile and warn you
that a particular movie is "not for everyone." "Adaptation" is a movie for which I need to
do just that. And it's not due to the "mature content" (although it is rated "R," so parents
be warned), but due to the movie's basic eccentricity. Spike Jonze and Charlie Kaufman, who
brought us "Being John Malkovitch" join forces again
for "Adaptation." And though the two movies could hardly be more unlike one another, they
are both very different from typical Hollywood fare. If you liked one, you may well enjoy the
other. But I offer no guarantees.
By now, my regular readers should know that I'm a sucker for superhero
movies. And with the recent successes of movies based on Marvel comic titles (those being last
year's "Spider-Man" and the previous year's
"X-Men"), I was eager to check out the latest such
offering, despite my lack of familiarity with the title, and the uninspiring ads. The short
version is that I'm not sorry I saw the movie, but I can't give it my wholehearted
recommendation for everyone.
Now this is something you don't see too often: two different movies
based on the same book, where the book is not a "classic." In this case I'm referring to
"Red Dragon," the second movie to be adapted from the book of the same name (the first
having been 1986's "Manhunter"). And there is little doubt as to why that book has received
a second treatment - we just can't get enough of Anthony Hopkins as Hannibal "The Cannibal"
Those of you who have been reading my reviews since the beginning
(or have ever been bored enough to read through the archives) may remember my review of
Princess Mononoke. If so, you'll know that I've long
been a fan of Japanese artist/director Hayao Miyazaki. So there was no question that I was
going to make time to see his latest film, "Spirited Away."
I'll start this review off with a warning: if you're looking for
some light summer entertainment, "Road to Perdition" is not the movie for you. I'll go so
far as to say it's a bit of a downer. But it is also a very well done coming-of-age movie,
and I strongly recommend it to everyone else.
Was there ever any doubt I'd make the time to see "Reign of Fire?" It's
not that aren't plenty of other movies out that I want to see - heck, I've even been hearing
that the "Powerpuff Girls" movie is pretty good. But even with its high potential for awfulness,
I had to check out a movie that the commercials advertised as "'Road Warrior' meets Dragonslayer.'"
And I'm pleased to say that it turned out to be a pretty good movie.
It will come as a surprise to no one that I made it out to go see "Minority Report"
on its opening weekend. I'm a sci-fi geek, and a big fan of both Speilberg and Philip K. Dick (upon who's
story this film is based). Nor will anyone be surprised that I liked this movie, since I haven't turned in
negative review since last year. But surprising or no, it's my job to tell everyone how much I liked this
movie, and why.
I want my regular readers to know that I'm not getting lazy or anything - this really
is the second review in a row in which I don't have much to say, because I liked the movie. This time it
was "The Bourne Identity," and as with "Sum of All Fears" or last year's
"Spy Game," it was a solid, entertaining spy flick with no flaws
worth complaining about (not that I ever let that stop me).
Allow me to wax nostalgic for a moment. For the very few of you who were there at
the time, you'll know why this review is kind of special to me. Because it was my impromptu review of "The
Phantom Menace" that started all this silliness. That review, with all of it's shattered hopes and annoyed
nitpicks, is gone for good. But now that this has become something of a permanent fixture around here, I
figured it was nothing less than my duty to review "Attack of the Clones" as soon as humanly possible (short
of camping out ahead of time, that is).
I always try to avoid hearing anyone else's opinion of a movie
I'm planning to review, so that I can write a review based on my own first impressions,
without any outside influence. Of course, it's inevitable that unless I go and see the film
alone, I'll end up discussing it with someone before I can get around to my review. In this
case, I've had all weekend to talk about "Windtalkers," and the more I think about it, the
worse the movie gets.
This promises to be a short review, because I don't have a whole lot to say about
"The Sum of All Fears." But as you should know by now, that's a good sign. It was a solid, entertaining movie,
with little to complain about.
There are some movies that you absolutely have to see, whether they are any good or not.
Which movies fall into this category is a very personal thing. For me, one of those movies was
"Dungeons & Dragons," a fact I will probably regret on my deathbed. A more widely-applicable example is the
latest version of "Spider-Man." Whether you collected the comic or not (I didn't), Spider-Man is one of those heroes
that has saturated our culture to the point where you know who he is and what he's about. Add to this my own childhood
memories of two different Spider-Man cartoons, and some number of poorly-done TV movies, and there was no way I could
miss this one.
Wow. And let me repeat that: Wow. Not since my very first review has a movie come along
with quite this much expectation riding on it. And unlike "Episode I," the first installment of "The Lord of
the Rings" trilogy was every bit as good as I'd hoped for. It was thorough, visually pleasing, well-acted,
complex and simple at the same time, and managed to balance action, humor, and romance to a very effective
degree. Like I said, wow.
Movies based on video games are risky business. Most recently, we saw how
horribly, horribly wrong it can go with "Tomb Raider." Looking further into the past, screen gems such
as "Wing Commander" and "Super Mario Brothers" spring to mind. So I wasn't looking forward to "Resident
Evil," the new Milla Jovovich vehicle based on the identically-titled game series that I've never
played. But after a couple of other reviewers declared that the movie was better than they had
expected, I figured it might be worth the risk to see
Leeloo Dallas kick a little more sci-fi butt.
As part of an effort to increase the frequency of my ever-more erratic movie
reviews, I finally got around to seeing "Brotherhood of the Wolf." For those who don't know, this
one is a subtitled french import, apparently based on an actual french folk legend. It is primarily
an action film, with a fair bit of suspense/mystery thrown in. So far, it's only playing at a few
So this is completely new territory for me. It was one thing to go from writing my
reviews as e-mails to writing them directly in HTML, but putting pen to paper is an entirely different animal.
Not that you can tell the difference, now that I've transcribed it here (and believe me, that was a weird
sentence to write). But I just didn't have the time between seeing "Ocean's 11" and leaving for Paris to
write this review on computer. But you don't care about that, do you? You just want to hear about the
This ought to be a short one, because I have nothing but kind words to say about "Spy
Game." This one is two hours of pure entertainment, with a great balance of guns, girls and cloak and dagger.
Basically, it's most everything a spy movie should be.
To make my job easier, kindly place yourself in one of two groups before reading this
review. You are either a person who has read "Harry Potter and the Sorceror's Stone," or you aren't. Those in
the former group can probably stop reading after the second paragraph. Those in the second group can probably
skip straight ahead, to where my job gets a bit tougher.
This review is a complete turnaround from my last, where I experienced hours
of painful writer's block. The reason for the change is that this time, my head is chock-full of different ways to
pan the awful, awful movie that was "The Musketeer." The only trouble should be deciding which criticisms to
include so that this review isn't reduced to a disordered brain-dump of insults.
Okay, so I'm having a really hard time with this one. I saw the rereleased, remastered,
and extended version of "Apocalypse Now" last Wednesday, and as you can see it's taken me quite a while to get
this review out. And not for lack of trying. I just deleted the first three paragraphs because they were going
nowhere. And that's the first time I've ever had to do that with one of these.
Stop me if you've heard this one. Or at least skip to the next paragraph. I'm standing
outside the theatre talking to my friend Jim, waiting for the rest of the gang to show up for our viewing of
"Dungeons & Dragons." Jim and I are talking about computer animation, and I complain that it just isn't up to
snuff yet, and certainly nowhere near ready for the task of representing humans on screen. Minutes later, we're
in the theatre, the lights are down, and the reviews are playing. On screen, a woman stands alone on a barren,
broken plain, speaking of the dark secret that lurks inside of her. Not until the preview is half way through
do I realize that the woman is 100% CGI. That was my first glimpse of "Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within," and
more than enough to get me into the theatre.
Looking at the promos, and even the movie itself, I suppose the correct title
is actually "Lara Croft Tomb Raider." But somehow that just doesn't roll off the tongue quite so
easily. In any case, yet another summer-action-brain-candy-blockbuster has hit the screen, and it
is my job to review it. Well, not my job, unless you know somebody who will pay me for this, but I
I'll start this review by voicing my one and only regret. That is to say,
my one and only regret with regard to this review. I wish that sometime prior to seeing "O Brother,
Where Art Thou?" (preferably immediately prior) I'd read Homer's "Odyssey." Because as you may or
may not know, that is the story upon which "O Brother" is based. And if I had the proper literary
background, I'd have been able to draw many more connections between epic poem and movie.
I think I'm beginning to get the hang of this movie review thing. However,
there's one definite problem I'm beginning to notice. Unless a movie is noticeably bad or very good,
I tend not to have a whole lot to say about it, and the review ends up pretty short (that, or when
the computer crashes after hours of brilliant analysis; I'm still bitter about that one).
Such is the case with "Bridget Jones's Diary." It was a cute movie, and I liked it, and there's not
much else to say. Now watch me blabber on for several paragraphs anyway.
The way I see it, there are only two good reasons
for a story to have a sequel. The first, of course, is that there is still
more story to tell. The second reason for a sequel is that the first incarnation
was just so darn good that the audience wants more of the same. The usual
Hollywood reasoning: "The first one made lots of money," while closely related to number two,
doesn't really cut it in my book.
Though I may not be the history buff that some of my friends are,
I'm still a sucker for a good war movie. So even after lukewarm reviews,
I was interested in seeing "Enemy At the Gates."
Not counting "The Grinch," which was an entirely different case
altogether, "Hannibal" represents the first movie I've reviewed having
read the book first. So let me just begin by saying that it's difficult
to review this movie without constantly comparing it to the novel. I
think instead that I will just say whatever comes to mind, including
both my attempts to review the film in isolation, and in contrast to the
After a great deal of anticipation, I finally got out to see
"Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon." If you, like a certain sister-in-law
of mine, are too lazy to read the rest of this review, then I'll sum it
all up for you now - I loved it. For the rest of you brave souls, the
verbose version follows.
The way I figured it, after seeing the previews for "Cast Away," I'd
basically seen the whole movie. And that was almost true. Nonetheless,
it turned out to be well worth seeing.
I never had any intention of seeing this movie, and I still don't. But
sources tell me that this movie is bad - possibly the worst movie of the
year. You have been warned.
For those who don't already know, let me share with you the fact
that I am essentially a big geek. Not the glass-eating, circus freak
variety; but the glasses-wearing, ComiCon kind. My favorite books and
movies are science fiction, I paint little toy soldiers for wargames, I
constantly battle with my computer to make it play the latest games, and
I even watch Star Trek from time to time. But what is relevant here, and
what forced this confession, is that I play Dungeons & Dragons. I played
it when I was young, and do so to this day.
You've probably seen the ads. And, if you're like 90% of everybody
else, you probably enjoyed M. Night Shyamalan's directorial debut, "The
Sixth Sense." So you're probably thinking that "Unbreakable," which
again pairs Shyamalan with actor Bruce Willis, will be worth seeing. And
I'm here to tell you that you're right.
I really wanted to like "The Grinch." And I did, just not as much as I
wanted. It was cute, and fun, but ultimately left me feeling that it
just could have been better.
Writer's block is evil. For my sake, please pretend that this
paragraph consists of a variety of witty, insightful remarks about the
newly-released version of "The Exorcist." That way I can carry on to the
main body of this review without feeling bad about the opening.
My Review of "Space Cowboys": Fun movie. Decent plot. Good acting.
Cool yet restrained special effects. Predictable. Extraneous characters.
Extraneous romance. NASA is cool. Good humor. Good action.
Big waves, dirty fishermen, some heroic deaths, the human spirit
triumphs over nature. This is more or less what I figured "The Perfect
Storm" had to offer, and I fully intended to give it a miss until good
reviews started coming in. That and it was the only thing playing last
night that I hadn't seen. So let me say now that the movie proved me
wrong, and I like that.
Movies based on comic books are dangerous propositions in Hollywood.
With the exception of the early Christopher Reeve "Superman" movies, and
the Michael Keaton "Batman" movies, just about every attempted
translation of comic-book superheroes to the big screen has been an
abject failure. As this is especially true of Marvel Comics, I was
expecting to be dissapointed by "X-Men." Imagine my suprise when this
movie managed not only to surpass all previous efforts, but to actually
make for a good film.
So I was thinking the same thing that everyone else was: That "The
Patriot" would just be "Braveheart" with muskets. And though the
similarities really can't be avoided, "The Patriot" stands on its own
and makes for an enjoyable film. It has loads of good action, epic
battles, and all kinds of other fun.
Be shocked and amazed as I do my best impression of a real movie
critic by once again seeing a movie before it actually opens! Unless, of
course, you're reading this after June 23rd, in which case I could be
lying. But the point is that I've just seen "Chicken Run," the new
claymation feature by Nick Park, and here I am to do my duty and review
it for you.
Who's the black private dick that's a sex machine to all the chicks?
Who's the cat that won't cop out when danger's all about? That's right,
I'm talkin' about "Shaft." And the above two lines were just about all I
knew of this movie coming into it.
I wasn't really expecting much out of "Mission Impossible 2." I
thought that the first one was pretty good, despite some logic-straining
elements. But after seeing previews for the sequel, and noting that John
Woo would be at the helm, I was a bit worried. I figured that the movie
would abandon its spy-flick roots and go entirely over to action, which
seemed a shame.
You would think, given the title, that "Gladiator" would have had
more gladiatorial combats. I have to admit a bit of dissapointment at
the absence of some of the more bizarre contests. Never was the movie's
coliseum floor filled with water for naval battles, nor were we treated
with pitched melees of midgets versus fat women. But despite the
surprising dearth of arena combat, the movie was an entertaining vehicle
for testosterone-packed action.
One thing that always gets to me when reading movie reviews is
writers' use of the word "style." When I read that certain movie is
"stylish," or "exudes style," I really have no idea what that's supposed
to mean. And yet "stylish" somehow seems like the best - perhaps the
only - word I can find to describe "Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai."
I suppose I could speak more plainly and just say that it was cool, but
not in a whiz-bang sort of way. Instead, it's cool in a more quiet,
self-assured kind of way. And you see that description might be kind of
confusing, so I have to fall back and say that this movie was stylish.
In general, I don't think I like courtroom dramas very well. They
usually seem very formulaic, and every predictable step leads up to that
inevitable dramatic pause before the final verdict is read. And yet you
can't really blame the movies for this formula, because the courts
they're showing work in a very particular, structured way. Only the very
rare exceptional film manages to simultaneously capture this rigid
framework, and rise above it. "Rules of Engagement" is not such a film.
Many movies, when the credits have rolled and the lights come up,
leave the audience with unanswered questions. Sometimes these questions
are more important than any given answer, and the movie is better off
for the asking. Other times, the unanswered questions leave the audience
feeling cheated, and we wonder if the screenwriter perhaps forgot a few
pages. After watching "Mission to Mars," the question that weighed most
heavily on my mind was "so what?"
Sci-fi buff that I am, I had high hopes for "Pitch Black." And while
it was better than the usual B-movie fare that this genre tends to
generate, it was still a bit disappointing. Perhaps this was just
another case of too much expectation, but I felt that this movie had a
great deal of unrealized potential.
A man from a distant planet is sent to Earth to impregnate a woman,
as the first step in a plan of global domination. But the men of his
all-male planet have evolved beyond genitals, so for his mission he'll
have to have a set installed - a set which hums when he becomes aroused.
Yes, this is the plot of a movie.
Since I started writing these reviews, I've dealt with a couple of
movies that I was really looking forward to seeing. And using "Star
Wars" as a primary example, the expectations you build up for these
movies can result in some real disappointment. So I was a little worried
I would be let down as I got ready to watch "Princess Mononoke."
When I first started seeing trailers for "The Bone Collector," I had
no particular intention to see it. The previews indicated the standard
suspense-thriller fare - nothing to get excited about. But eventually I
found cause to watch this movie, and it really had nothing to do with
the increased media buzz about actress Angelina Jolie.
The first thing that I have to say about "Being John Malkovitch" is
that it is a weird, wierd movie. Fortunately I have a certain fondness
for weird, and so I really liked this movie. But don't get me wrong,
this film had a lot more going for it than simple weirdness.
By the time I got around to seeing "Fight Club," I had already been
told again and again what a good movie it was. Most of my friends had
seen it the week before, and were doing a good job of building it up for
me. This is always pretty dangerous, since it's hard for any movie to
live up to overblown expectations. But "Fight Club" pulled through, and
proved to be a very entertaining and well-done movie.
Because I couldn't convince my dad to see "Fight Club," this
weekend's movie was "Bringing Out the Dead." If you haven't seen the
previews, this one has Nicholas Cage as a paramedic on the fast road to
burnout. I heard somewhere that this movie is based on the memoirs of a
real paramedic, and this might well explain why the film's plot seemed
to be some kind of stream-of-consciousness affair.
I have to admit to a certain amount of skepticism when I first
started seeing ads for "Three Kings." Something about the combination of
George Clooney, Ice Cube, and "Marky" Mark Wahlberg in a movie about the
Gulf War just didn't sit well with me. But as I saw more trailers and
the reviews started coming in, I decided to give it a try. And I'm glad
My initial response to "American Beauty" can be summed up in a
single word: "Wow!" I really, really enjoyed this movie, although it's
hard to pin down exactly what made it so great.
I may have to take a break from seeing comedies for a while. The
ones I've seen so far this summer have been pretty good, and I'm running
out of different ways to say "It's funny." The movie which has inspired
this bit of rumination is "Mystery Men," the theatrical superhero spoof
based on the Dark Horse comic of the same name.
Now that it's been two whole days since I saw "Bowfinger," I'm
having trouble deciding what to say in this review. Not that this movie
is particularly forgettable, but it is light comedy, and so doesn't
inspire days of deep contemplation.
Despite rather humble origins and a low budget, The Blair Witch
Project has benefitted from no small degree of hype. Since first reading
about it a few months ago in "Rolling Stone," I'd been increasingly
looking forward to seeing this movie. Consequently, I probably had too
high expectations of just how scary this movie would be, and was
somewhat dissapointed. Nonetheless, it was a great film.
This is the end of the review, mostly. You should go see the movie
now. Everything from here on out may detract from the fear factor of
this film. Instead, come back and read the next bit after watching the
movie, and it may increase your appreciation of the film. But don't read
it now, unless you are of particularly delicate constitution, and want
to hear a few things which may make it easier for you to watch the movie
in peace. So just in case you are reading this part without watching
first, I'll continue to avoid giving away any surprises. Stop reading
What you may have known before watching the movie, and almost
certainly figured out if you stayed to watch the credits, is that this
movie is not a true story. I tried to avoid any mention of this
question above, in the hopes that viewers might go in thinking it true,
and thus experience a heightened fear.